Will US littoral combat ship become submarine killer?

美濒海战斗舰能否成潜艇杀手?

Source
China Military Online
Editor
Zhang Tao
Time
2016-09-12

 

美国《国家利益》网站近日报道,由于认识到俄罗斯、中国等潜在对手都在快速研制新式潜艇及相关武器技术,美国海军正在开发轻型反潜设备,旨在提升濒海战斗舰跟踪、定位和摧毁敌方潜艇的能力。

BEIJING, Sept, 12 (ChinaMil) -- "The US Navy is working to develop lighter-weight anti-submarine technology designed to better enable its Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) to track, locate and destroy enemy submarines – all while recognizing potential rivals Russia and China continue to rapidly develop new submarine weapons and technologies," according to the US website National Interest.

实际上,美国有着广泛、多样的反潜手段,为什么还要在濒海战斗舰上加装反潜模块?它会成为未来的潜艇杀手吗?

The US already has extensive and diverse anti-submarine approaches. Why does it install anti-submarine devices on Littoral Combat Ships? Will the LCS become the future submarine killer?

国防科技大学国家安全与军事战略研究中心副研究员赵炤告诉科技日报记者,“美国海军已建成种类完善、技术先进的反潜战装备体系,作战能力在全球首屈一指。但美军的这些反潜手段多为冷战时期研发,假想作战对象多为深海大洋中游弋的前苏联核潜艇部队,难以完全适应美海军越来越多的近海、浅水反潜任务需求。综合考虑未来战场态势和装备特点,美国海军选择加强其濒海战斗舰的反潜能力作为应对。”

Zhao Zhao, associate research fellow at the Research Center of National Security and Military Strategy of the PLA National University of Defense Technology, told reporter that "the US Navy has established an anti-submarine system of complete equipment types, advanced technologies and cutting-edge combat capability in the world. But its anti-submarine approaches were mostly developed during the Cold War when the imaginary target was former Soviet Union's nuclear submarine force cruising in the ocean, so it's not easy for them to completely adapt to the increasing near-sea and shallow-water anti-submarine tasks. Based on overall considerations for the situation and equipment features on future battlefield, the US Navy chose to intensify the anti-submarine capability of its littoral combat ships as a countermove."

他介绍,其主要原因有三点:

According to Zhao, there were three reasons for America's choice.

一是战场生存力强。与美海军其他主战水面舰船相比,濒海战斗舰吨位小、航速快,且采用了全隐身设计,由此带来的低可探测性和高机动性特征使其在制空制海权不占优势的战场条件下,即使遭遇敌制导武器攻击,仍能保持较高的生存概率。

First, it will have a high survival rate on the battlefield. Compared with other main battle surface vessels in the US Navy, the LCS features small tonnage, high speed and full-size stealth design, and the consequent low detectability and high maneuverability give the ship a high survival rate even when it encounters the enemy's guided weapon on a battlefield where it has no air or sea advantages.

二是与潜艇对抗优势大。在战场对抗条件下,与濒海战斗舰处于“单向发现”或“互相发现”态势的敌方潜艇均会面临进退两难的局面,而利用40余节的最大航速,濒海战斗舰可以轻松摆脱敌鱼雷或其他水下目标攻击,并迅速占领有利阵位攻击或引导攻击对方。

Second, it will have notable advantage in confrontations against submarine. Enemy submarine in confrontation with the LCS, either in the state of one-way or two-way discovery, will face a dilemma, while the ship, with a maximal speed of more than 40 knots, can easily get rid of enemy torpedo or other underwater attacks and quickly occupy a favorable position to attack or guide attack of the enemy.

三是加改装难度小。不论是“自由”号还是“独立”号,在研发之初都预留了加装“反潜任务模块套件”的空间,仅需将美军原有的、为4000吨级以上舰船所研制的搜潜设备小型化,就能实现“远距探测潜艇能力”。

Third, it will be easier for additional installation or adaptation. Both the Freedom and Independence LCSs reserved space for "anti-submarine package" when they were first developed. The US Navy only has to downsize the submarine searching device originally developed for ships larger than 4,000 tons to be able to "detect submarine over long distance".

记者了解到,选择濒海战斗舰还有一个大背景,那就是美国国防预算持续削减,因此不得不依托海军已有作战平台寻求“多快好省”的解决方案弥补此短板。基于此,按照“任务模块”理念设计的濒海战斗舰得以入选。

It is learnt that another background factor for choosing the LCS is the continuous reduction of America's defense budget, so the navy has to seek an "economical and convenient" solution based on existing combat platforms, and the LCS designed under the concept of "mission module" is a good choice.

按照公开报道,加装在濒海战斗舰上的反潜模块将包括可变深度声呐、多功能拖曳阵列系统、轻型反鱼雷系统、反潜任务管理与指控系统(软件)、一架装备有轻型鱼雷和声呐浮标的MH-60R“海鹰”反潜直升机、两架用于扫描海面并通过数据链回传实时视频图像的MQ-8B“火力侦察兵”无人直升机、以及相应的支持和保障系统等多种装备。

Open reports show that the anti-submarine modules installed on the LCS will include variable depth sonar (VDS), Multi-Function Towed Array system (MFTA), light anti-torpedo system, anti-submarine task management and command system (software), an MH-60R Seahawk anti-submarine helicopter equipped with light torpedo and sonar buoy, two MQ-8B Fire Scout UVAs that can scan the sea surface and transmit real-time video images via data link, and supportive and guarantee systems.

赵炤指出,虽然现有无人潜航器技术在通信、控制、动力、储能等诸多方面仍存在不足,但已显现出应用于反潜作战的巨大潜力,我们不应忽视美军在未来的反潜战任务中,由濒海战斗舰充当无人潜航器母舰平台的可能性。

According to Zhao, although unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV) technology has many deficiencies in such aspects as communication, control, power and energy storage, it has shown tremendous potential for anti-submarine combat, and we shouldn't ignore the possibility that the US military may use the LCS as the platform for UUV in future anti-submarine tasks.

另外值得一提的是,装备可变深度声呐和多功能拖曳阵列系统的濒海战斗舰不仅严重威胁浅水中的常规潜艇,对在恒温层(水深350米左右)以下活动的核潜艇也将构成巨大威胁。

It's also worth mentioning that when equipped with VDS and MFTA, the LCS will be able to pose a serious threat not only to regular submarines in shallow waters, but also to nuclear ones operating under the constant zone of subsurface temperature (about 350m under water).

“一旦数量足够、具备远距离侦搜反潜能力的濒海战斗舰如期于2018年左右形成实际作战能力,将作为美已有反潜手段的有力补充。届时美军对全球近海海域和关键海上通道的水下控制能力将大大增强,潜在对手的水下力量在与美对抗时将面临更为严酷的战场环境。”赵炤说。

"Once a sufficient number of the LCSs that are able to detect, search and counter submarines over long distance form actual combat capability around 2018 as scheduled, they will be a strong supplement to the US' existing anti-submarine approaches. At that time, the US military will have a better control of underwater space in near waters and on key sea routes around the world, and the underwater forces of its potential rivals will face a tougher confrontation environment," said Zhao Zhao.

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