T-14 "Armata" Tank Fits Russia's National Interests

详解俄“阿玛塔”坦克:横空出世符合俄国家利益

Source
China Military Online
Editor
Zhang Tao
Time
2016-09-20
 

据俄罗斯“卫星”通讯社报道,俄罗斯国防部副部长鲍里索夫日前表示,俄军将采购超过100辆T-14“阿玛塔”坦克进行试用,目前首批“阿玛塔”坦克已投入作战测试。这意味着自胜利日阅兵公开展示早期发展模型后,俄新一代重型主战坦克已经进入批量生产阶段。

BEIJING, Sept. 20 (ChinaMil) -- Russian news agency Sputniknews reported that Russia's deputy defense minister Yuri Borisov recently announced that the Russian military will purchase more than 100 T-14 Armata tanks for trial use, and the first batch is already under combat testing. This means that after Russia exhibited the early-stage development model at the V-Day military parade, its new-generation heavy main battle tank (MBT) has entered the stage of mass production.

在日前美国《国家利益》杂志中列出的俄罗斯未来5大最强武器清单中,排名第一的就是T-14“阿玛塔”坦克。该坦克采用多层复合装甲、无人炮塔、先进火控系统和隔舱化设计,技能指标得到显著提升。在经过部队试用和测试改进后,“阿玛塔”坦克将大规模列装俄陆军部队,成为俄罗斯未来的“陆战之王”。

America's National Interest magazine listed Russia's five most powerful weapons in the future, with T-14 Armata on top of the list. Featuring multi-layered compound armor, unmanned turret, advanced fire control system and compartment design, the tank's performance is considerably improved and it will be commissioned in the Russian army on a large scale after being tested and improved. It will be Russia's future "king of ground battles".

锋芒尽现,瞄准性能促提升

Improved performance

2008年俄格冲突后,为充分扭转俄军在战争暴露出的经验不足、应对多种新安全威胁能力较弱问题,俄军大刀阔斧地掀起了旨在推动军队体制编制和武器装备现代化发展的“新面貌”军事改革。

During the Russia-Georgia conflict in 2008, the Russian army exposed several defects such as lack of experience and weakness in dealing with multiple new security threats, so it launched a bold and massive military reform aimed to modernize the military system, weapon and equipment.

作为加强俄军主战武器装备建设的“明星工程”,T-14“阿玛塔”坦克由乌拉尔车辆研究与生产公司负责研发,于2012年正式得到俄政府批准立项,并在2015年5月9日红场胜利日大阅兵中首次公开亮相。

As a star project for enhancing Russia's military main battle weapons and equipment, T-14 Armata tank developed by Uralvagonzavod (UVZ) was officially approved by the Russian government in 2012 and premiered at the V-Day military parade on May 9, 2015.

作为俄军未来的“陆战之王”,“阿玛塔”坦克作战性能强劲。其采用无人炮塔设计,战斗全重65吨,装备125毫米滑膛炮,基本可发射目前俄军所有型号的炮弹和新型弹药。

As Russia's future "king of ground battles", Armata tank features strong combat performance. With an unmanned turret, it has a full combat weight of 65 tons and is fitted with the 125mm smoothbore gun that is able to fire basically all of Russia's current cannons and ammunitions.

为充分提高“阿玛塔”坦克的探测能力,俄罗斯甚至将专门为T-50战斗机研制的有源相控阵雷达“嫁接”到“阿玛塔”坦克的火控和主动防御系统中,可迅速确定来袭导弹的种类和飞行轨迹,引导坦克展开有针对性的打击和安全规避。

To fully improve the tank's detecting capability, Russia installed the Active Phased Array Radar (APAR) specifically developed for the T-50 fighter in Armata's fire control and active defense system, so as to quickly ascertain the type and flying trajectory of incoming missile and guide the tank to carry out targeted strike and movement.

“阿玛塔”坦克具备在昼夜和各类复杂气象条件下组织作战和开展进攻的能力,可全自动跟踪、识别及选定目标。

Armata tank is able to organize combat and strike around the clock and in all kinds of complicated meteorological conditions, and can automatically track, identify and choose targets.

由于装备了新型火炮、机枪、自动装弹机等武器系统,并配属新型观察仪、现代化通信和导航系统,“阿玛塔”坦克不仅可在战场随时定位,更可完成静止或行进过程对敌方目标的精确打击任务。

Equipped with new-type weapon systems such as artillery, machine gun and autoloader as well as new observation, modern communication and navigation systems, Armata is not only capable of battlefield positioning anytime, but can also precisely attack enemy targets either still or on the move.

此外,针对以往苏系坦克推进系统严重的性能缺陷,“阿玛塔”坦克进一步改进了发动机和传动箱等动力系统,并采用技术成熟的液力传动装置,充分提升了坦克的机动性能。

Besides, considering the serious performance defects in the propulsion system of previous Russian tanks, Armata tank has improved engine, transmission and other power systems, and adopts the mature hydraulic transmission device to fully improve its maneuvering performance.

其采用的1500马力柴油发动机,具备自动预防动力系统过热能力,可在几分钟内完成快速更换,更加适应现代战争高速机动、复杂多变的战场环境,将进一步提高坦克的战场生存能力。同时,由于新型技术方案造价更低,“阿玛塔”坦克进一步降低了制造成本。

The 1500hp diesel engine it uses prevents the power system from overheating automatically and can be replaced within several minutes, which is more suitable for the modern battlefield environment featuring high-speed maneuverability, complexity and variability, and can increase the tank's survival rate on the battlefield. At the same time, the lower cost of the new technical solution also reduced the manufacturing cost of Armata tank.

T-14“阿玛塔”坦克的出现,主要是为了取代技术复杂、造价高昂的T-95坦克。与俄军现役的T-72坦克相比,T-14的技战术指标更是提升了近3倍。未来,俄军将以“阿玛塔”坦克为基础,进一步推动重型装甲系列平台建设。

The T-14 Armata tank is developed to replace the technologically more complicated and costly T-95 tank and its technical and tactical indicators are nearly three times as good as those of the T-72 tank currently serving in the Russian military. Based on Armata, the Russian military will further step up the development of heavy armored platforms.

装备明星,针锋相对引关注

Star equipment draws close attention

“阿玛塔”坦克是俄军多用途装甲平台发展的重点项目之一,采用模块化原则进行生产,将成为俄军装备现代化建设的里程碑。目前,俄军计划于2018年开始大规模生产“阿玛塔”坦克,到2020年前至少装备2300辆“阿玛塔”系列坦克。

As one of the key projects in Russia's development of multi-purpose armored platforms, the Armata tank is produced in modules and will be a milestone in Russian military's equipment modernization drive. Russia plans to produce Armata tanks on a large scale from 2018 and commission at least 2,300 of it by 2020.

“阿玛塔”坦克可谓俄罗斯坦克制造和国防工业发展的“精品佳作”。其专门针对坦克布局进行优化,采用隔舱化设计,将作战乘员和所携带弹药布置在不同舱室内,可大幅度降低坦克在遭受攻击时对乘员造成的附加伤害。

Armata tank is a "masterpiece" of Russian tank manufacturing and defense industry development. It adopts the compartment design to optimize the tank layout, so that the tank crew and ammunitions can be separated in different compartments, thus considerably reducing collateral damages to the crew when the tank is under attack.

为有效提升防护能力,“阿玛塔”坦克配备了Afghanit主动保护系统,并具有强大的电子战能力,可对来袭导弹进行有效干扰和摧毁。此外,“阿玛塔”坦克更在作战机动力、杀伤力和防护力上进行了大幅度的改进和提升。

To be more capable of defense, Armata tank is equipped with the Afghanit active protection system and its powerful electronic combat capability can effectively disturb and destroy incoming missiles. Moreover, Armata is also largely enhanced in terms of combat maneuverability, destructive and defensive capability.

“阿玛塔”坦克代表了俄军信息化装备的发展实力。目前,“阿玛塔”坦克的3人乘员舱配备了触摸显示屏,具备战地网络连接能力,可为周边坦克传输即时消息、视频和图像信息,并装备了俄罗斯自主研制的格洛纳斯全球定位系统。

Armata tank represents the capability of Russia's military IT equipment. At present, the three crew members onboard Armata have touchscreens that can connect with battlefield network and transmit real-time messages, videos and images to surrounding tanks, and it's also fitted with Russia's independently developed GLONASS positioning system.

与此同时,俄正计划将“阿玛塔”坦克改造为无人驾驶的作战平台,成为俄军未来的“钢筋混凝土般基础的开放式无人作战装备”。

Russian military also plans to modify it into an unmanned battle platform that can serve as "open unmanned combat equipment with a reinforced concrete foundation" in the future.

事实上,要想成为未来的“陆战之王”,仅靠一系列参数数据还远远不够。“阿玛塔”坦克还需要结合部队使用反馈,进行后续的研究和改进,并在训练、演习和实战中摔打磨练。

As a matter of fact, a series of parameters aren't enough to create a future "king of ground battles", so Armata tank still has to be further studied and improved based on the troop's feedback and tempered through trainings, exercises and real combats.

值得注意的是,作为对俄军发展“阿玛塔”坦克的直接回应,西方国家采取了针锋相对的措施。

It's worth noting that western countries adopted targeted countermeasures in response to Russia's development of the Armata tank.

德国目前正计划在改进型“豹”2主战坦克上加装新型130毫米坦克炮,并加速推进被称为“主力地面作战系统”的新型主战坦克。

Germany is planning to install the new-type 130mm tank gun in the improved Leopard 2 MBT and is developing the new MBT commonly known as the "main ground combat system" at a faster pace.

同时,美国陆军也将从2017年开始装备量产的M1A2 SEP v.3“艾布拉姆斯”坦克,新版本坦克具备改进的互联互通网络能力和人机交互界面,并将进一步增强坦克乘员对环境的感知能力。

The American Army will commission the mass-produced M1A2 SEP v.3 Abrams Tank in 2017, which has better internet connectivity and MMI and can help the tank crew to better perceive the environment.

英国陆军也正在研究升级“挑战者”2坦克或购买新型坦克来应对“阿玛塔”坦克带来的作战危机。

The British Army is also studying to upgrade the Challenger II MBT or buy new tanks to cope with the combat crisis imposed by Armata.

大国重器,军队建设助推剂

Booster of military enhancement

作为俄罗斯新一代主战坦克,“阿玛塔”坦克在结构设计上的颠覆性创新彻底改变了传统苏系坦克的设计风格,不仅可大幅度降低装备的研发成本,更为实现武器装备保障一体化创造了条件,是俄军引以为豪的“未来重型通用战场平台系统”。

As Russia's new-generation MBT, Armata has subversive innovation in its structural design that completely changes the design style of traditional Russian tanks, not only largely reducing the R&D cost, but also creating the conditions for integrated weapon and equipment support. It is a "universal heavy battlefield platform" for the future that the Russian military is proud of.

目前,俄军更加注重武器装备的平台化、模块化和通用化建设,以“阿玛塔”为代表的具有开放式结构、模块化功能和统一化平台的装甲系统,将根据俄军战场需求配备完成不同任务的战斗模块,组成俄军未来决胜陆战场的“装甲劲旅”。

The Russian military is paying more attention to developing platform, modular and universal weapon and equipment. Armored systems represented by Armata feature open structure, modular functions and unified platforms, so they can form different combat modules to accomplish various battlefield missions as needed and fight as an "armored brigade" in the future.

在“阿玛塔”的防护设计上,俄罗斯改变了传统设计思维,转为重点加强战场环境和制导武器感知,积极运用主动防御手段,充分加强对坦克乘员的防护。

Regarding Armata's defensive design, Russia changed its traditional design philosophy and turned to stress the perception of battlefield environment and guided weapon, and made full use of proactive defense means to protect the tank crew.

目前,俄罗斯公开展示的“阿玛塔”通用作战平台包括T-14主战坦克、T-15重型步兵战车和T-16装甲抢救车。

To date, the Armata universal combat platform exhibited by Russia included the T-14 MBT, T-15 heavy infantry fighting vehicle (HIFV) and T-16 armored recovery vehicle (ARV).

尽管“阿玛塔”坦克堪称摆脱传统、开拓创新的全新俄制坦克,但相比于占据制高点的西方坦克而言,“阿玛塔”仍存在许多短板。由于在结构原理、操作使用等领域与俄军现有坦克存在较大不同,俄陆军需要重新根据“阿玛塔”坦克的技战术性能改进和完善相应的人员编组、制度体系、作战条令等配套制度。只有促进人与装备的有机结合,充分发挥出新装备在信息化战争条件下的作战潜能,才能确保“陆战之王”真正名副其实。

Although Armata is a breakthrough in Russia's tank innovation, it still has many shortcomings compared with those of western countries. As Armata varies largely from Russia's current tanks in structure, principle and operation, the Russian army has to improve personnel formation, institutional system, combat command and other auxiliary systems according to the tank's technical and tactical performances. Only by improving the man-tank coordination and fully tapping the new tank's combat potential in IT conditions can it become a true "king of ground battles".

根据俄罗斯《2011-2020年国家武器装备发展纲要》,俄军计划投入23万亿卢布用于加快武器装备更新进程。预计到2020年,俄军武器装备现代化比例将提高到70%。

According to Russia's National Outline for Weapon and Equipment Development 2011-2020, the Russian military plans to invest 23 trillion roubles ($355.60 million) in weapon and equipment upgrade, which will raise its military modernization rate to 70% by 2020.

按照俄陆军的武器装备发展计划,将在2020年前完成3种不同重量类型作战平台的研制和列装工作。“阿玛塔”坦克能否与其他武器平台相互配合,如何实现俄陆军信息化建设和装备体系作战能力发展,仍是俄军将要面临的“大考”。

According to the plan, the Russian army will complete the development and commissioning of three combat platforms of different weights by that time. Whether Armata will coordinate with other weapon platforms and how to develop the army's IT capability and its equipment systems' combat capability is a major test in front of the Russian military.

在苏联解体后的数十年时间内,元气大伤的俄罗斯军工系统一直在吃苏联遗留的老本,甚至是长期对旧型号武器装备修修补补。而近年来,西方因乌克兰问题对俄罗斯实施了一系列经济制裁,让俄罗斯面临巨大经济压力。

In the tens of years after the Soviet Union disintegrated, the Russian military system that was hit hard has been resting on its laurels and has tinkered old weapon and equipment for a long time. In recent years, western countries launched a series of economic sanctions against Russia because of the Ukraine issue, putting it under tremendous economic pressure.

为对内提振士气,对外展现强硬态度,俄罗斯特别需要在俄乌冲突甚嚣尘上和北约持续压缩战略空间之际大秀“肌肉”。因此,俄新一代“陆战之王”横空出世并匆匆上阵是符合俄罗斯国家利益的必然选择。

To lift the national morale and put up a tough stance, Russia urgently needs to "flex muscles" as the Russian-Ukraine conflict is making a big splash and NATO is continuously squeezing its strategic space. Therefore, the development and hurried commissioning of its new-generation "king of ground battles" is an inevitable choice that fits Russia's national interests.

(马建光 张乃千 国防科技大学国际问题研究中心)

(By Ma Jianguang, Zhang Naiqian, Research Center for International Studies, PLA National University of Defense Technology)

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