Russia speeds up strategic missile upgrade

俄罗斯提速战略导弹更新换代

Source
China Military
Editor
Zhang Tao
Time
2016-11-08

俄罗斯马克耶夫国家导弹中心网站日前公布一张新型RS-28“萨尔玛特”洲际战略导弹的外形设计图,引起西方舆论哗然。据西方媒体称,这一新型导弹具有巨大杀伤力,一枚足以摧毁法国面积大小的国家。

BEIJING, Nov. 8 (ChinaMil) -- Russia's Makeyev State Missile Center recently released the first image of the new RS-28 Sarmat intercontinental ballistic missile on its website, making a big splash among western media, which claimed that the new missile is so powerfully destructive that one is enough to destroy a country the size of France.

“萨尔玛特”导弹设计图的公开表明,俄罗斯新一代战略导弹的研制工作正加紧进行。“萨尔玛特”导弹究竟是一种什么武器?它的威力是否真如媒体猜测?俄公布新型战略导弹的设计图有何用意?俄为何加速新型战略导弹的研制计划?

The publication of Sarmat's image indicates that Russia's R&D of the new-generation strategic missile is well under way. What kind of weapon is Sarmat? Is it as powerful as the media guesses? Why did Russia publish the image of the new strategic missile and why did it speed up its R&D?

确保核大国地位

Consolidating Russia's position as a major nuclear power

俄罗斯2009年开始研制新型重型液体燃料洲际导弹,以替换即将退役的R-36M2“部队长官”(北约称为SS-19“撒旦”)和UR-100N UTTH(北约称为SS-19“短剑”)导弹。

Russia began to develop the new heavy liquid-propellant intercontinental missile in 2009 to replace the R-36M2 Voevoda (NATO reporting name SS-19 Satan) and UR-100N UTTH (NATO reporting name Stiletto) to be decommissioned soon.

根据目前公布的信息,“萨尔玛特”导弹自重100吨,采用液体燃料发动机,能携带10到15枚分导式核弹头。弹头采取先进的突防技术,据称能突破现有所有反导系统,可从不同方向对多个目标进行识别攻击。导弹射程达1.7万千米,可飞越南极或北极,精准攻击地球上任一目标。

According to public information, Sarmat has a dead load of 100 tons, uses liquid-propellant engine, and can carry 10-15 independently targetable nuclear warheads that adopt advanced penetration technology and can allegedly penetrate all existing anti-missile systems and identify and strike multiple targets in different directions. With a shooting range of 17,000km, the missile can fly over the South Pole or North Pole and accurately hit any target on earth.

军事专家认为,“萨尔玛特”导弹一旦部署,将成为俄核武库新的杀手锏,对美国等构成巨大威慑。这一导弹研制进程加快,也因此引起西方媒体高度关注。而俄军方发布的消息说,“萨尔玛特”导弹将于2018年到2019年开始装备俄战略导弹部队。

According to military expert, once Sarmat is deployed, it will be the new trump card in Russia's nuclear arsenal and pose an immense deterrent on the US. The accelerated development of this missile drew close attention from western media, and the Russian military released news that Sarmat will be commissioned in its Strategic Missile Force in 2018-2019.

俄研制新型战略导弹,提速核武器的更新换代,首先是维护国家安全和保持核大国地位的需要。

Russia is developing the new strategic missile and accelerating the upgrade of nuclear weapons mainly to preserve national security and maintain its position as a major nuclear power.

俄总统普京曾明确表示,核武器仍将是防止核军事冲突和常规军事冲突的重要因素;俄的主要任务是“保持足够水平的核遏制潜力”。

Russian President Putin made it clear that nuclear weapon will remain a key element to prevent nuclear and conventional military conflicts, and Russia's main task is to "maintain sufficient potential of nuclear containment".

此外,拥有先进核武器也是俄作为大国的象征之一。因此,尽管经济起起伏伏,俄罗斯一直竭力维护自苏联继承来的核武库,力图保持与美国在核力量方面的大致平衡。

Besides, the possession of cutting-edge nuclear weapon is one of the symbols for Russia's major power status. Therefore, it has done its best to keep up the nuclear arsenal inherited from the Soviet Union despite economic ups and downs, in a bid to keep the general nuclear balance with the US.

更新老旧核导弹

Replacing old nuclear missiles

由于履行核武器削减条约、核武老旧问题严重、经济境况不佳等因素,总体来说,俄战略核力量多年来呈缩减态势。

Owing to the implementation of nuclear weapon downsizing treaty, backwardness of nuclear weapon and poor economic conditions, Russia's strategic nuclear force has been shrinking for many years.

资料显示,苏联解体后,俄从苏联继承了2000多件战略核武器运载工具和1万多枚核弹头。虽然确切数据难以掌握,但到今天,俄战略导弹部队列装的洲际导弹和核弹头的数量相比苏联时期应已大大减少。

Documents show that after the Soviet Union disintegrated, Russia inherited more than 2,000 strategic nuclear weapon carrier vehicles and more than 10,000 nuclear warheads. Although the specific data is unavailable, the number of intercontinental missiles and nuclear warheads equipped in the Russian Strategic Missile Force today must be much smaller than it was in the Soviet Union age.

目前,苏联时期列装的许多战略导弹已到使用年限,一些已超期服役。

Many strategic missiles commissioned in the Soviet Union age are coming to the end of their service life now and some have already served longer than they should.

现役的R-36M2“部队长官”和UR-100N UTTH导弹部署于上世纪70年代末到90年代初,而RS-12M“白杨”导弹1985年开始部署。这些战略导弹从本世纪初开始陆续退出战斗序列。

The R-36M2 Voevoda and UR-100N UTTH missiles in service now were deployed from the late 1970s to the early 1990s, and the RS-12M Topol was deployed in 1985. They were decommissioned from combat successively from the beginning of this century.

俄罗斯近十年来采取各种措施改造养护,希望延长这些战略导弹的使用寿命,但到2020年前后,老旧导弹将无法继续服役。

Russia has taken all kinds of measures in the past decade to modify and maintain them in hopes of extending their service life, but the old missiles will be unable to serve any more around 2020.

俄维护核大国地位的重要着力点是研制新型陆基战略导弹。

Russia's efforts to preserve its position as a major nuclear power are focused on developing new land-based strategic missiles.

根据俄2020年前的武器换装计划,俄将投资约7000亿美元用于武器装备更新,其中10%用于战略核力量更新换代,主要包括研制能携带核弹头的陆基新型战略导弹、为海军装备新一代“北风之神”战略核潜艇并配备新型“布拉瓦”潜射核导弹等。

According to its weapon upgrade plan before 2020, Russia will invest about $700 billion in upgrading its weapons and equipment, 10 percent of which is for strategic nuclear force. This includes the research and development of new land-based strategic missile that can carry nuclear warheads, equipping the navy with new-generation Borei-class strategic nuclear submarine, and deploying the new Bulava submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM).

应对新形势需要

Dealing with new situation

加速更新战略导弹,也是俄应对美国等北约国家在东欧部署导弹防御计划以及地缘政治新形势的需要。

Speeding up the upgrade of strategic missile is a necessary step for Russia to deal with the missile defense program deployed by the US and other NATO members in East Europe and the new geopolitical situation.

军事专家葛立德认为,在俄罗斯与北约的战略实力抗衡中,俄“三位一体”战略核力量体系正在升级换代,这是维系其大国地位的重要王牌,也是与美国讨价还价的重要筹码。

Chinese military expert Ge Lide held that in the strategic contention between Russia and NATO, Russia is upgrading its "tripartite" strategic nuclear system, which is a trump card for maintaining its major power status and a critical bargaining chip against the US.

普京曾强调,俄新型战略武器将“能够突破任何反导防御系统”。近年来,俄研制新型战略导弹的主要方向就是针对反导系统的突破能力。俄制“白杨”-M、“亚尔斯”战略导弹和即将部署的“萨尔玛特”导弹,不仅打击能力强,飞行速度快,同时都具有极强的突防能力。

Putin stressed that Russia's new strategic weapons will be able to "penetrate any anti-missile defense system", and its development of new strategic missiles in recent years is focused on such penetration capability. Its Topol-M, Yars strategic missile and the Sarmat to be deployed soon boast powerful strike capability, high speed and strong penetration capability.

此外,战略导弹研发生产本土化也是俄努力的方向。

Besides, Russia is also working on the localization of strategic missile research, development and manufacturing.

例如,R-36M2“部队长官”等战略导弹由乌克兰的“南方”设计局设计,很多生产环节也分布在乌克兰等国。而据俄媒报道,“萨尔玛特”导弹的研制和生产将全部由俄科研机构和企业完成。

For example, strategic missiles such as R-36M2 Voevoda are designed by Ukraine's Yuzhnoye State Design Office and many production links are carried out in Ukraine and other countries. Russian media reported that Sarmat will be developed and manufactured completely by Russian research institutes and manufacturers.

不过,对经济实力远逊于美国的俄罗斯来说,研制新型战略导弹、维护与美国实力相当的核武库,长期看任务艰巨。

However, since Russia lags far behind the US in economic strength, developing new strategic missiles and keeping up a nuclear arsenal commensurate to that of the US will be an arduous task for it in the long term.

俄未来战略核力量走怎样的发展道路,俄国内也存在不同看法。无论如何,打造本国国力能够承受的战略核力量,维护国家安全和全球战略均势,无疑仍将是今后俄国家根本利益之所在。

There are different opinions within Russia as to how it should develop the strategic nuclear force. But fostering such a force that its national strength can bear and preserving national security and global strategic equilibrium will be doubtlessly in Russia's fundamental interest in the future.

 

Related News

Continue...